ASSOCIATIONS OF BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AND MATERNAL TRAITS WITH MUTATION 1843 (C>T) IN THE RYR1 GENE AS A COMMON CAUSE FOR PORCINE STRESS SYNDROME
Popovski ZT, Tanaskovska B, Miskoska-Milevska E, Andonov S, Domazetovska S
*Corresponding Author: Professor Zoran T. Popovski, Ph.D., Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Bld “Aleksandar Makedonski,” bb PB 297, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Tel: +389-70-252-731. Fax: +389-2-3134-310. E-mail: zoran_popovski@yahoo.com
page: 75

DISCUSSION

We did not find a significant correlation between the level of Ca2+ and stress susceptibility [12,19]. The values of plasma Ca2+ showed no significant differences among the different PSS genotypes. All values for concentrations of Ca2+ were in the reference range. The biochemical data for total protein and ALT did not show significant association with the PSS genotypes. The potential link between creatinine and bilirubin values with the PSS genotype has been previously presented [20]. The levels of creatinine, bilirubin and AP were in the frame of their reference ranges although the PSS-susceptible animals had higher values of creatinine, bilirubin and AP compared to those from stress-free and heterozygous animals. Nevertheless, the differences in the three groups of animals in some parameters were highly significant. Taking into account the role of AP in energy metabolism, creatinine as a final product of increased energy level and the releasing of myoglobin as one of the bilirubin precursors, those differences are explainable. Lactate dehydrogenase was used as a biochemical marker for the identification of stress susceptible animals before development of molecular tools [12,16]. Our data confirmed that only the values of the enzyme from non induced stress-free animals (398.00 U/L) were in the frame of reference values, while the values of heterozygous (Nn) animals were slightly out of that range (655.00 U/L). The values of stress-susceptible animals were 2-fold higher (894.00 U/L) than the maximum values of reference range (159.00-475.0 U/L) (p <0.01). These data were consistent with the role of LDH in the metabolism of glucose in anaerobic glycolysis in humans [20]. The possible reason for that is the fact that even non induced stress is a reason for a slower rate of lactate and CO2 production from glucose, so the enzyme is accumulated in plasma [21]. Creatine phosphokinase was reported to be affected in PSS animals [21]. Our results showed that the values of the enzyme from stress-free animals (276.00 U/L) were within the normal range, the CPK values from the heterozygous pigs (591.00 U/L) were out of range, and the values of stress-susceptible animals were higher (764.00 U/L) than the maximum values of the reference range. Those differences matched with the PSS genotype were highly significant (p <0.01). The mechanism of CPK activity is in energy metabolism and it is highly released by the stress susceptible animals. In the human population, up to 70.0% of stress susceptible subjects show increased muscle-specific CPK activity in plasma [22]. Deviation of AST values were observed in the animals with the different PSS genotype. We observed the highest deviation between the values we measured and the reference values. Only the data of stress-free animals (29.20 U/L) were in the frame of reference values, the values of heterozygous animals were higher (58.30 U/L), while the values of the homozygous animals (125.50 U/L) were 3-fold higher than those in the reference range (17.00- 45.00 U/L) (p <0.01). This is the first published evidence about a possible association between AST and PSS. Regarding maternal traits, we found that the heterozygous PSS sows with genotype Nn expresses the best reproductive ability, the highest number of newborn and the lowest number of stillborn piglets compared with normal (NN) and stress susceptible sows (nn) (p <0.05). Also, in the Nn genotype, the number of weaned piglets was the highest compared with the other genotypes (NN and nn), but these differences were not statistically significant (p >0.05). The lowest reproductive ability was observed in the nn genotype, with the lowest number of newborn, the highest number of stillborn and the lowest number of weaned piglets. It is important to point out that the nn category was represented by a limited number of samples, and therefore, this might be due to a sampling effect. There is no data about the association of maternal traits with genotype for stress syndrome in humans, bearing in mind that the same mutation occurs in the ryr1 gene in the human and swine genome.



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