PPARγ GENE AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS: GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, EPIGENETICS AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS
Grbić E, Peterlin A, Kunej T, Petrovič D
*Corresponding Author: Professor Daniel Petrovič, M.D., Ph.D., Institute of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine University Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia. Tel: +386-1-5437-360. Fax: +386-1-5437-361. E-mail: Daniel.petrovic@mf.uni-lj.si
page: 39
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Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. It is characterized by the formation of a plaque in the walls of middle and large arteries leading to macrovascular complications. Several risk factors are included, with diabetes being one of the most important for the onset and development of atherosclerosis. Due to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes in the world, the incidence of diabetic complications (microvascular and macrovascular) is increasing. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a important role in atherosclerotic processes. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors, has a great presence in fat tissue, macrophages, and regulates gene expression and most of the processes that lead to the onset and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the basic patho-physiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, we discuss the impact of PPARγ polymorphisms, and the epigenetic mechanisms affecting the onset of atherosclerosis, i.e., DNA methylation and demethylation, histone acetylation and deacetylation, and RNA-based mechanisms. Moreover, we add therapeutic possibilities for acting on epigenetic mechanisms in order to prevent the onset and progression of atherosclerosis.



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