INDIVIDUAL PHENOTYPE TRAIT VARIABILITY AS GENETIC MARKERS OF GENDER SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SPINA BIFIDA
Nikolic DP1,*, Cvjeticanin S2,3, Petronic I1,2, Brdar R2,4, Cirovic D1,2, Bizic M4, Milincic Z1,2, Karan R5
*Corresponding Author: Dejan P. Nikolic, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Children’s Hospital, Nikole Stefanovica 3, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia; Tel.: +38-1-638-133-345; Email: denikol27@yahoo.com
page: 11

RESULTS

Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits by Gender in Controls. Only four (26.7%) of the HRT differed significantly, of which two (13.3%) (opposite hair whorl orientation and left-handedness) were significantly more frequent in males, while two (13.3%) HRT (continuous hairline and index finger longer than the ring finger) were significantly more frequent in females (Tables 1 and 2). The individual variations of 15 HRT between genders in the control group [χ2 = 46.3; degree of freedom (df) = 14, p <0.01) were significantly different. Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits by Gender in Spina Bifida Occulta Patients. Homozygous recessive traits that significantly differed [four (26.7%)] were remarkably higher in females than in males (opposite hair whorl, continuous hair line and attached ear lobe, top joint of the thumb >45°) (Tables 1 and 2). The individual variations of 15 HRT between genders in SBO subjects (Σχ2 = 66.9; df = 14, p <0.01) were significantly different. Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits by Gender in Spina Bifida Aperta Patients. There were 12 (80.0%) HRT that significantly differed, of which six (40.0%) HRT were remarkably frequent in males (straight hair, continuous hairline, ear without Darwinian notch, color blindness, right thumb over left thumb and top joint of the thumb >45°), and six (40.0%) HRT were remarkably frequent in females (opposite hair whorl, soft hair, attached ear lobe, blue eyes, proximal thumb extensibility and index finger longer than the ring finger) (Tables 1 and 2). The individual variations of 15 HRT between genders in SBA subjects (Σχ2 = 165.9; df = 14, p <0.01) were significantly different. Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits Between Male Controls and Spina Bifida Occulta Patients. We found nine (60.0%) HRT that differed significantly, of which four (26.7%) HRT were remarkably frequent in the male control group (opposite hair whorl orientation, attached ear lobe, ear without Darwinian notch and right thumb over left thumb), while five (33.3%) HRT were remarkably frequent in male patients (blond hair, straight hair, soft hair, blue eyes and proximal thumb extensibility) (Tables 1 and 3). The individual variations of 15 HRT between both groups (Σχ2 = 95.7; df = 14, p <0.01) were significantly different. Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits Between Female Controls and Spina Bifida Occulta Patients. We found 5 (33.3%) HRT that differed significantly between these groups, of which 1 (6.7%) HRT was remarkable frequent in the control group (attached ear lobe), while 4 (26.7%) HRT were remarkable frequent in the patients (blond hair, straight hair, top joint of the thumb > 450 and left-handedness) (Tables 1 and 3). Individual variations of 15 HRT between both groups (Σχ2=56.1; df=14, p<0.01) were significantly different. Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits Between Male Controls and Spina Bifida Aperta Patients. We found eight (53.3%) HRT that differed significantly between these groups. Male controls had four (26.7%) HRT that were significantly frequent (two hair whorls, opposite hair whorl orientation, attached ear lobe and index finger longer than the ring finger), and male SBA patients had four (26.7%) HRT that were remarkably frequent (blond hair, straight hair, continuous hairline and blue eyes) (Tables 1 and 3). Individual variations of 15 HRT between the male control group and SBA patients (Σχ2 = 90.1; df = 14, p <0.01) were significantly different. Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits Between Female Controls and Spina Bifida Aperta Patients. We found nine (60.0%) HRT that differed significantly between these groups. Female controls had three (20.0%) HRT that were remarkably frequent (two hair whorls, attached ear lobe and right thumb over left thumb), and female SBA patients had six (40.0%) HRT were remarkably frequent (blond hair, opposite hair whorl orientation, soft hair, blue eyes, proximal thumb extensibility and left-handedness) (Tables 1 and 3). Individual variations of 15 HRT between the female control group and SBA patients (Σχ2 = 140.1; df = 14, p <0.01) were significantly different. Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits Between Male Spina Bifida Occulta and Spina Bifida Aperta Patients. We found six (40.0%) HRT that significantly differed between these groups, of which three (20.0%) HRT were remarkably frequent in SBO patients (two hair whorls, proximal thumb extensibility and index finger longer than the ring finger), and three (20.0%) HRT were remarkably frequent in SBA patients (opposite hair whorl orientation, continuous hairline and color blindness and) (Table 1 and 3). Individual variations of 15 HRT between male SBO and SBA patients (Σχ2 = 89.4; df = 14, p <0.01) were significantly different. Variability of Homozygous Recessive Traits Between Female Spina Bifida Occulta and Spina Bifida Aperta Patients. We found six (40.0%) HRT that differed significantly between these groups, of which three (20.0%) HRT were remarkable frequent in SBO patients (continuous hairline, right thumb over left thumb and top joint of the thumb >45°), and three (40.0%) HRT were remarkably frequent in SBA patients (soft hair, blue eyes and proximal thumb extensibility) (Tables 1 and 3). Individual variations of 15 HRT between female SBO and SBA patients (Σχ2 = 90.4; df = 14, p <0.01) were significantly different. Phenotype Traits Distribution Between Different Male and Female Groups of Participants. In the male gender there is a continuous increase in the proportional presence with the least proportion in the control group and the highest proportion in SBA patients for three (20.0%) HRT, while two (13.3%) HRT had a continuous decrease (Table 1). In the female gender, six HRT (40.0%) showed a continuous increase from the control group to SBA patients, while three HRT (20.0%) showed a continuous decrease in the proportional presence (Table 1). Even though color blindness in the female gender had a continuous decrease, we have excluded this trait from this study since the difference between percentages was 0.1% between the control group and SBO patients (Table 1). We found that 2/12 HRT had the same tendency of proportional presence in both genders, while 10/12 HRT were different (3/12 HRT for the male gender and 7/12 HRT for the female gender).



Number 26
VOL. 26, 2023 Supplement
Number 26
VOL. 26(1), 2023
Number 25
VOL. 25(2), 2022
Number 25
VOL. 25 (1), 2022
Number 24
VOL. 24(2), 2021
Number 24
VOL. 24(1), 2021
Number 23
VOL. 23(2), 2020
Number 22
VOL. 22(2), 2019
Number 22
VOL. 22(1), 2019
Number 22
VOL. 22, 2019 Supplement
Number 21
VOL. 21(2), 2018
Number 21
VOL. 21 (1), 2018
Number 21
VOL. 21, 2018 Supplement
Number 20
VOL. 20 (2), 2017
Number 20
VOL. 20 (1), 2017
Number 19
VOL. 19 (2), 2016
Number 19
VOL. 19 (1), 2016
Number 18
VOL. 18 (2), 2015
Number 18
VOL. 18 (1), 2015
Number 17
VOL. 17 (2), 2014
Number 17
VOL. 17 (1), 2014
Number 16
VOL. 16 (2), 2013
Number 16
VOL. 16 (1), 2013
Number 15
VOL. 15 (2), 2012
Number 15
VOL. 15, 2012 Supplement
Number 15
Vol. 15 (1), 2012
Number 14
14 - Vol. 14 (2), 2011
Number 14
The 9th Balkan Congress of Medical Genetics
Number 14
14 - Vol. 14 (1), 2011
Number 13
Vol. 13 (2), 2010
Number 13
Vol.13 (1), 2010
Number 12
Vol.12 (2), 2009
Number 12
Vol.12 (1), 2009
Number 11
Vol.11 (2),2008
Number 11
Vol.11 (1),2008
Number 10
Vol.10 (2), 2007
Number 10
10 (1),2007
Number 9
1&2, 2006
Number 9
3&4, 2006
Number 8
1&2, 2005
Number 8
3&4, 2004
Number 7
1&2, 2004
Number 6
3&4, 2003
Number 6
1&2, 2003
Number 5
3&4, 2002
Number 5
1&2, 2002
Number 4
Vol.3 (4), 2000
Number 4
Vol.2 (4), 1999
Number 4
Vol.1 (4), 1998
Number 4
3&4, 2001
Number 4
1&2, 2001
Number 3
Vol.3 (3), 2000
Number 3
Vol.2 (3), 1999
Number 3
Vol.1 (3), 1998
Number 2
Vol.3(2), 2000
Number 2
Vol.1 (2), 1998
Number 2
Vol.2 (2), 1999
Number 1
Vol.3 (1), 2000
Number 1
Vol.2 (1), 1999
Number 1
Vol.1 (1), 1998

 

 


 About the journal ::: Editorial ::: Subscription ::: Information for authors ::: Contact
 Copyright © Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics 2006