IL-18 GENE PROMOTER REGION 607C/A POLYMORPHISM IN HIV-1 INFECTED NORTH INDIAN POPULATION
Sobti RC1,*, Sharma VL2, Abitew AM2, Berhane N1, Mahdi SA1, Askari M1, Kuttiat VS3, Wanchu A3
*Corresponding Author: Ranbir C. Sobti, Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 India; Tel.: +172-2534087; +94-1-704-4523; Fax: +172-25341409; E-mail: rcsobti@ pu.ac.in
page: 41

RESULTS

was done by the physicians as per the World Health Organization (WHO) staging guidelines. Accordingly, all the four stages of HIV/AIDS were found in the cases. Of all the 500 seropositive cases, 74 (14.85%) were at stage I, 143 (28.6%) at stage II, 113 (22.6%) at stage III and 170 (34%) were at stage IV (AIDS) of the disease. The mean counts of CD4+-T cells at stages I, II, III, and IV were 331, 268, 206, and 113, respectively. In all, 500 HIV-1/AIDS patients and an equal number of controls were studied for 607C>A IL-18 promoter polymorphism. As shown in Figure 1, there were C/C, C/A and A/A genotypes at position 607. The PCR products of homozygous individuals showed a 301 bp DNA segment and those of heterozygous individuals showed 196 and 301 bp fragments. The genotypic distributions and allelic frequencies of 607C>A are presented in Table 2. The genotype distributions are in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A significant increase in frequency of the wild C/C genotype was observed in patients when compared to control subjects (43.0 vs. 38.4%, p = 0.040). The frequency of the C/A genotype was slightly higher in controls (52.8%) than in cases (51.4%) (p = 0.321) and that of the A/A genotype was significantly lower (p = 0.040) in patients (5.6%) than in controls (8.8%). The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 68.7 and 31.3% in cases and 64.8 and 35.2% in controls (p = 0.071), respectively. For accounting of the risk assessment the genotypic data was analyzed with Epi Info software. The results showed a significantly reduced risk of HIV-1 infection with the homozygous variant 607A>A genotype when it was computed against healthy controls [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.33-0.98, p = 0.040]).Conversely, a statistically insignificant reduced risk of HIV-1 infection was observed with the heterozygous 607C>A genotype (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.66-1.14, p = 0.321). Likewise, a statistically insignificant association of HIV-1 infection was observed with the 607A allele (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.69-1.01, p = 0.071). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of 607C>A between only seropositive for HIV-1 and seropositive patients with disease are presented in Table 3. Of the 500 seropositive patients with HIV-1, 330 (66%) were patients at stages I-III without AIDS and the remaining 170 (34%) were at the AIDS stage. The frequency of the wild C/C genotype in seropositive patients without AIDS disease was 130 (26%) as compared to 85 (17%) in HIV-1 patients at at the AIDS stage. The frequency of the heterozygous C/A genotype was 178 (35.6%) and 79 (15.8%) for seropositive patients without AIDS and those at the AIDS stage, respectively. The frequency of the mutant genotype A/A was 4.4% (22) in HIV-1 patients without AIDS disease and 1.2% (six) in patients with AIDS. A statistically insignificant reduced risk of HIV infection was observed with the C/A genotype of IL-18-607 (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.47- 1.01, p = 0.057). Moreover, a statistically insignificant reduced risk of HIV infection was observed with the homozygous variant A/A genotype (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.14-1.14, p = 0.098).



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