Possible association of maternal haemorrhoid with congenital abnormalities in their children – a population-based case-control study
Ferenc Bánhidy, M.D.1, Nándor Ács, M.D.1, Erzsébet H. Puhó2, and Andrew E. Czeizel2*
*Corresponding Author: Andrew E. Czeizel, Foundation for the Community Control of Hereditary Diseases, 1026 Budapest, Törökvész lejtõ 32. Hungary; Tel: +36 1 3944 712, Fax: +36 1 3944 712; E-mail: czeizel@interware.hu
page: 25

INTRODUCTION

Our ongoing project is the systematic analysis of the possible association of maternal diseases in pregnant women with adverse birth outcomes in their newborns babies based on the large population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA) [1]. Our motivation is that: (i) the possible teratogenic-fetotoxic effect of drugs has been frequently studied but the reasons of these treatments, i.e. underlying maternal diseases sometimes were neglected; and (ii) the association of some maternal diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy with pregnancy outcomes is well-known, but some other pathological conditions, e.g. haemorrhoid were not studied in controlled epidemiological studies [2, 3]. Haemorrhoid is a common pathological condition [4] particularly in females and in pregnant women [5]. There are two main manifestations of haemorrhoid. External haemorrhoid consists of a cluster of veins and the overlying, redundant squamous integument at the external brim of the rectal outlet. Secondary aggregates may be found flanking these primary sites to increase the number of external and internal haemorrhoid complexes from the usual three to as many as six. Pain without bleeding is the characteristic symptom of these external redundancies. With injury by abnormal bowel movements (diarrhoea or constipation), bleeding and painful oedema may develop in the overlying skin with or without thrombosis within one or more of the subintegumental haemorrhoidal veins. Internal haemorrhoid consists of a cluster of submucosal veins adjacent to the dentate line. Redundancy of the overlying mucosa produces a prominence immediately within the rectal outlet. We have studied the possible association between maternal haemorrhoid and related drug treatments with congenital abnormalities (CAs) in their offspring in the population-based data set of the HCCSCA on the basis of a “no association” hypothesis.



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