ARRAY COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION: A NEW GENOMIC APPROACH FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION ANALYSIS OF COPY NUMBER CHANGES
Dimova Iv
*Corresponding Author: Dr. Ivanka Dimova, Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University Sofia, 2 Zdrave str, 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria; Tel.Fax: +359-2-952-03-57; E-mail: idimova73@yahoo.com
page: 11

Abstract

Advances in microfabrication technology and the completion of a draft of the human genome sequence provide new options for identifying genes that are altered in cancer and developmental abnormalities. Some of the most powerful approaches use microarrays to define differences in gene copy number. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) detects changes in DNA copy number based on co-hybridization of labeled experimental and normal DNA to an array of genomic DNA. This technique provides high-throughput detection of chromosomal gains and losses at high resolution in a whole or regional genome. This strategy enables rapid detection of homozygous deletions that may contain critical tumor suppressor genes, regions of heterozygous loss that allow molecular phenotyping of tumors based on underlying genetic abnormalities, and detection of amplicons that are associated with over-expression of oncogenes. Genomic arrays offer several advantages for screening of copy number changes in human genetic diseases.

      Key words: Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH); Copy number changes; Cancer; Genetic diseases.




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