PS19. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF Y-CHROMOSOMAL AND MITOCHONDRIAL LINEAGES AND LANGUAGE AFFINITIES OF EURASIAN POPULATIONS
ELZA KHUSNUTDINOVA1, M.Bermisheva1, I.Kutuyev1, R.Khusainova, B.Malyarchuk2, V.Stepanov3, T.Kivisild4, R.Villems4. 1. Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of Ufa Science Center of RAS, Ufa, Russia,2. Institute of Biology of the North, Magadan, Russia, 3. Institute of Medical Genetics, Tomsk, Russia, 4. Tartu University and Estonian Biocenter, Tartu, Estonia. e-mail: elzakh@rambler.ru
*Corresponding Author:
page: 25

Abstract

Linguistically close populations are usually also close genetically, as well as geographically, leaving often open a question what comes first. The problem is more complex with linguistic phyla with a wide geographic spread. Here we study phylogeography of mtDNA and Y chromosome in a nearly comprehensive list of Turkic and Uralic speaking Eurasian populations. Altogether, we have analyzed about 12,000 DNAs from 54 populations, out of them 11,000 are from the present study and around 1000 are from data, published by others. In this data set, the core “East Europe – south Siberian steppe belt” is represented by 5,000 Altaic and 4200 Uralic speaking people.

Basing on the results of our study the following conclusions may be drawn.There are no maternally inherited genetic lineages – variants of mtDNA – that bring together Turkic speaking populations, less so the entire Altaic linguistic family. It is shown that in the Turkic populations, its repertoire starts from a nearly exclusively western Eurasian mtDNA variants in Gagauz population in Moldova and ends with Dolgans and Yakuts in Siberia that almost lack such mtDNA genomes. Nearly the same general picture can be observed for the Uralic-speaking people, except we have found that haplogroup U4 is a single common variant in the mtDNA pool of the main branches of the Uralic-speaking people. Curiously enough, U4 is found at very low frequencies in Saamis and Finns, though well present in Karelians and Estonians, in most of Volga Uralic speakers, Siberian Ugrics as well as in all branches of Samoyeds. Language shift rather than a movement of the people is a likely explanation for the spread of these two Eurasian linguistic phyla.Y-chromosomal haplogroup N3 is present in all major branches of the Uralic speaking populations – Finnic, Ugric and Samoyed speaking people, except in Selkups. N3 is also widely spread among many populations of the Tungusic branch of the Altaic linguistic family and in Mongol-speaking Buryats, but rare in Mongols and Kalmyks. It is omnipresent in Siberian and East European Turkic speaking people, reaching close to saturation in Yakuts, but rare or absent in the Caucasus and Anatolian Turkic speakers.The dominant in all Mongolic-speaking people Y-chromosomal haplogroup C is also well spread in Tungusic speaking Native Siberians, but absent or almost absent in all Uralic-speaking populations, including Native Siberians-Samoyeds and Siberian Ugric speakers.The results enforce a comprehension that a linguistic classification of populations, relying on language family trees, although often a reasonable and interesting starting point for population genetic studies, is not a reliable approximation to understand genetic history of the Uralic and Altaic language speaking people: neither maternally, nor paternally inherited genes follow the pass of languages at the level of widespread linguistic phyla.




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